The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and usage of the Tobacco Tactics website compared to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line among Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators).
Materials and methods
Smokers attending workplace safety training groups were randomized to either the Tobacco Tactics website with nurse phone counseling and access to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line which provided an equal number of phone calls and NRT. Participating Operating Engineers completed a baseline survey as well as mailed surveys at 30-days and 6-months. Urinary cotinine tests were used to verify 6-month smoking status. The outcomes were compared using χ2 tests, t-tests, mixed models, generalized mixed models, and logistic regression models.
Compared to participants in the 1-800-QUIT-NOW group, significantly more of those in the Tobacco Tactics website group participated in the intervention, received phone calls and found the intervention helpful (p<0.05). Seventy percent of the website group received NRT compared to 5.1% of the quitline group (p<0.001). At 30-day follow-up, the Tobacco Tactics website group showed significantly higher quit rates (26.9%) than the 1-800-QUIT-NOW group (7.7%) (p<0.05), but this difference was no longer significant at 6-month follow-up. There were significantly more positive changes in harm reduction measures (quit attempts, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and nicotine dependence) at both 30-day and 6-month follow-up in the Tobacco Tactics website group compared to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW group (p<0.05).
The Tobacco Tactics website showed higher efficacy and reach than the 1-800-QUIT-NOW intervention. Longer counseling sessions may be needed to improve 6-month cessation rates. This intervention has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality among Operating Engineers.
This work was supported by the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation (BCBSM) Grant Number N011646-1465.RFP and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant Number 5R21CA152247-02.